The study of the chemistry of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry. The compounds of carbon that contain hydrogen and sometimes may also contain other elements like oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, halogen orphosphorus are called organic compounds. Some carbon compounds are not considered as organic compounds, i.e. salts such as carbonates (CaCO3, Na2CO3) and cyanides (KCN, NaCN) are usually termed as inorganic compounds.
Organic chemistry plays a significant role in the field of medicine, cleaning agents, food, analytic substances, sterilizing substances, valuables, etc. In the medical field, organic chemistry can be studied in three different parts, They are as follows:
- Like a drug – Various drugs used in the treatment of different diseases are usually made of organic compounds. Therefore it is bitter to taste, insoluble in water and moves easily in the body.
- Pathophysiology – The course of a disease or the pathway to understanding the severity of the disease can be studied with the help of organic chemistry. In a disease such as malaria, the parasite damages the hemoglobin content in blood. This leads to decreased levels of hemoglobin. The organic functional groups can recognize the change in the normal and diseased condition and will give details about the course of the disease.
- Diagnose – To detect disturbed substances or to understand the organic part of the substances that are deficient some diagnosing aids are used in organic chemistry. For example, in diabetic patients, increased sugar levels can be detected based on the number of ketones and aldehyde groups. As the number of these groups increases, the sugar levels also increases and as the number of these groups decreases, the sugar levels also decreases.
Food substances are merely made of carbon compounds namely carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. To understand the requirement of the body for various purposes, experts advice use of vitamins such as folic acid for pregnancy, protein-rich diet for bodybuilding, etc. Organic solvents are widely used as cleansing agents toclean the impurities in industries and labs. For example in the extraction of the drug from plants, with the help of petroleum ether, the fatty matter is removed easily from the pulp.
The disinfectants and sterilizing agents such as formaldehyde, phenol, etc are carbon compounds which have properties like solubility, pH they can easily kill microbes and bacteria.
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